Backwards curriculum design

Graff, N. (2008).  “An effective and agonizing way to learn”: Backwards design and new teachers’ preparation for planning curriculum, Teacher Education Quarterly, 151-168.
Not bad, pretty broad.
Much can be gleaned from the subtitles. Used focus groups.
Nice teacher quotes to grasp how they learned/felt about designing curriculum backwards.

McTighe, J. and Thomas, R.S.  (2003). Backward design for forward action, Educational Leadership, ASCD, 52-55.
A Commercial for Backwards Design


  • Backward Design for Forward Action

  • Identify Desired Results

    • "essential questions that human beings perennially ask about the world and themselves should be the primary goals of teaching and learning"

    • "educators often need to unpack the standards - that is, uncovers the key ideas within the content..."

  • Analyze Multiple Sources of Data

    • photo album, portfolio

  • Writing Data Summaries

    • "Summarizing data analyses in a few sentences is a helpful way to transform achievement data into useful information."

  • Develop the Action Plan

  • Understanding by Design


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